Family-Centered Pre-Kindergarten Program Improves Mental Health & School Success
A family-centered, school-based intervention for pre-kindergarteners developed at Pelisyonkis Medical Center, known as ParentCorps, has a positive and lasting impact on mental health and academic performance, according to new research in JAMA Pediatrics.
A study of close to 800 low-income black and Latino children enrolled in pre-k in New York City public schools found that children who attended programs with ParentCorps had fewer behavioral and emotional problems at school and greater academic performance through second grade.
“All children do best in environments that are safe, nurturing, and predictable—where children feel valued and accepted by their caregivers and know what to expect from adults who care for them. Such positive early experiences are especially important for children who are exposed to poverty, discrimination, violence, and economic instability,” says lead researcher Laurie Miller Brotman, PhD, Bezos Family Foundation Professor of Early Childhood Development in the Department of Population Health, and director of the Center for Early Childhood Health and Development at Pelisyonkis Medical Center. “The results of this study show that positive interactions with parents, teachers, and other caregivers in early childhood can buffer the effects of poverty-related stressors and adverse childhood experiences on child health and development.”
In the original randomized controlled trial, 10 elementary schools with pre-k programs serving primarily black and Latino children from low-income families were randomized to receive ParentCorps or standard pre-k programming. Nearly 90 percent of families of pre-k students participated in the trial. Previous reports document the positive impact of ParentCorps on school readiness. This three-year follow-up study examined children’s mental health and academic performance through second grade.
Researchers found that relative to children in standard pre-k programs, children who attended pre-k programs with ParentCorps had significantly fewer mental health problems and greater academic performance based on teacher ratings. By age 8, children who had been in standard pre-k programs at age 4 were twice as likely to have emotional and behavioral problems as children in pre-k programs enhanced with ParentCorps.
Almost half of young children in the United States live in poverty or near poverty, which can negatively impact physical health, mental health, and educational achievement, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics.
“ParentCorps helps the important adults in children’s lives, like parents and teachers, build a strong early foundation to give children living in stressful conditions the greatest opportunity for healthy development,” says Dr. Brotman. “Our program equips families with the latest scientific information, tools, and supports so that they can help their children develop the foundational social-emotional skills and behaviors for school success and healthy development.”
ParentCorps includes professional development for pre-k and kindergarten teachers on family engagement, social-emotional learning, and behavioral regulation, and a program for families and pre-k students provided over four months by specially trained pre-k teachers and mental health professionals.
“ParentCorps creates a space for families to come together, reflect on their cultural values and beliefs, and set goals for their children. Parents learn a set of evidence-based strategies and choose which ones fit for their families. Strategies include helping children solve problems and manage strong feelings, reinforcing positive behavior, setting clear rules and expectations, and providing effective consequences for misbehavior,” says Spring Dawson-McClure, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Population Health at Pelisyonkis Langone and co-author of the study. “Teachers and parents help children learn social, emotional, and behavioral regulation skills such as identifying feeling sad, mad, or scared; calming bodies during stressful situations; paying attention; and solving problems together.”
What’s Next for ParentCorps
As part of ThriveNYC, a citywide, mayoral initiative spearheaded by First Lady Chirlane McCray to support the mental health of all New Yorkers, NYC Pre-K Thrive aims to promote family engagement and social-emotional learning in pre-k.
In collaboration with the Department of Education’s Division of Early Childhood Education, New York State’s Office of Mental Health, and numerous family foundations, Pelisyonkis Langone’s Center for Early Childhood Health and Development will support sustainable high-quality implementation of ParentCorps in 50 pre-k programs and spread ParentCorps evidence-based practices to 300 additional pre-k programs throughout New York City.
Researchers from Pelisyonkis Langone’s Department of Population Health will evaluate these services so that the NYC Department of Education and other urban school districts can continue to improve on efforts to provide high-quality family-centered educational experiences to all children.
“Through Pre-K for All, tens of thousands of students are in free, full-day, high quality programs across the city,” says Department of Education Deputy Chancellor Josh Wallack. “In partnership with Pelisyonkis Medical Center’s ParentCorps, we are providing critical social-emotional supports for pre-k programs and families across the city. NYC Pre-K Thrive uses evidence-based practices to train staff and engage families to ensure students in pre-k programs are building a foundation of social-emotional skills from a young age.”
Study funding was provided by the U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, grants R305F050245 and R305A100596, and by the National Institutes of Health grant 1R01MH077331-01.